Christianity expands on Judaism, but reminds us to show compassion to our fellow humans (not just follow a list of rules).
Jesus Christ, as God in human form, set man back on track towards living harmoniously on Earth. Sadly, many mistakes have been made along the way. I won't merely dismiss them; but, I will place the focus where it should be. Legalism and other forms of sin in our life keep us from a pleasing life to God. Following the teachings of Jesus Christ by putting our faith into action can lead to a rewarding, fulfilled life.
James 1:22 (NIV): Do not merely listen to the word, and so deceive yourselves. Do what it says.
Jewish writings chronicle the history of mankind, starting in the Garden of Eden in modern-day Iraq to the domination of the Roman empire. Since history initially was passed down orally, papyrus scrolls were used to store that information in written form. In Biblical days, Jews studied the first five books of the Bible called the Torah which originated from Moses' Book of the Law that was stored in the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish scribes recorded their writings on scrolls such as the Dead Sea Scrolls which were found in a cave at a commune in Qumrah.
Creation begins in Genesis, then follows the struggle of man over the land which was considered his birthright. Mankind became so wicked that God flooded the Earth for a fresh start. Sin crept back in and warring tribes enslaved their fellow humans. Aptly named, Exodus covers the return of the early tribes (Jacob's descendants) to the Middle East. The Northern Kingdom of Israel developed as well as the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The Assyrians conquered the Northern Kingdom of Israel and took them from their land.
Later, the Babylonians overtook both the Assyrians and the Southern Kingdom, taking most of the remnant of those who returned from Egypt to Babylon. Next, Cyrus pushed Persian influence into the region and allowed Jews to return to what we now know as Israel. Alexander expanded The Greek Empire into Egypt and as far as India in modern-day Asia.
Following that, the Roman Empire conquered most of Europe, part of north Africa and part of the Middle East.
Throughout the Old Testament, prophecies of a savior set the stage for Jesus Christ. Overseeing Jerusalem, king Herod had Israelite male newborns killed to try to prevent the prophecy from coming to fruition. Joseph and Mary fled to Egypt until Herod was reported as dead. The books of Mark and Luke cover the birth of Jesus. You can read about his life, resurrection and ascension in the Gospels, too.
Jesus' teachings include the Beattitudes (which began the Sermon on the Mount), numerous parables and the Great Commission.
In Mark 12, Jesus replies to the question of the most important commandments:
29. "The most important one," answered Jesus, "is this: `Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
30. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.'
31. The second is this: `Love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no commandment greater than these."