Mesopotamia is the region known as the cradle of civilization because this is where the Garden of Eden was probably located. In Genesis 10:10, it has numerous references to towns where Ham's descendants settled including Shinar, the area where the Tower of Babel was erected. The earliest known inhabitants were the Akkadians, Sumerians and Chaldeans. Later civilzations to settle this area were the Assyrians and the Babylonians. The Akkadians and Assyrians resided in the vicinity of Mari while the Sumerians, Chaldeans and Babylonians lived closer to the Persian Gulf. Ninevah was an Assyrian town. According to the Holman Bible Atlas (ISBN: 978-0-8054-9760-1), Assyrians used the Akkadian laguage. (Click the links to learn more about these civilizations.)
Modern day countries that reside in the boundaries of Mesopotamia include Turkey, Syria, Iraq & possibly a portion of Iran.
Akkad is stated as being settled by Nimrod, the son of Cush & grandson of Ham in Genesis 10:10.
Image used with permission from Rose Publishing
References: (King James and NIV)
Shinar References: (King James and NIV)
King James only